Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the primary male hormone testosterone. They affect many parts of the body including muscles, bones, hair follicles, liver, kidneys, blood, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system (1). The increase in testosterone levels during adolescence, facial and body hair growth, lengthening, increase in muscle mass, thickening of the voice and urge to develop features such as. Testosterone can also cause aggression and contribute to a sense of competition with increased self-confidence.
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause problems such as tolerance when used continuously. In the longer term, they can even cause the body to stop producing its own testosterone. Some people are constantly taking steroids, others are trying to minimize the possible negative effects with different uses.
Periodicity: These individuals form a cycle by not taking anabolic steroids for 6 to 12 weeks after taking them for 4 weeks to several months.
Stacking: Users combine various types of steroids or add other supplements to maximize the effectiveness of steroids. This is called stacking.
Pyramidation: Some users gradually reduce the amount after peaking the dose.
However, there is no clear evidence that these methods reduce the risks of steroid use.
Some types of steroids are commonly used for medical treatment. For example, corticosteroid can help people with asthma breathe during an attack. Testosterone is also prescribed for a number of hormone-related conditions, such as hypogonadism.
- Delayed puberty
- Cancer and muscle-loss conditions such as 3rd stage HIV or AIDS
In addition to testosterone and several esters, methyltestosterone, nandrolone decanoate and oxandrolone are currently the main anabolic-androgenic steroids prescribed in the United States.
Non-medical use of steroids is not permitted in the United States. Under the Controlled Substance Act, illegal ownership and distribution is governed by federal and state laws. Since the use of steroids in sports is illegal, there is no legal control over the quality or use of drugs sold for this purpose.
Illegal steroids are acquired through the internet and through unofficial vendors such as other illegal drugs. However, some unconscious pharmacists may also be available to doctors and veterinarians. Steroids are sometimes produced to allow athletes to pass doping tests (2). In this way, the compositions and uses of said steroids become more dangerous. Athletes often consume steroids by trial and error, using information from coaches, websites or gym gurus. As a result, they cannot access medical information and support that can keep them safe while using these drugs.
The adverse effects of steroid use may vary depending on the product, the age and sex of the user, the amount they use and the duration of use. Legally prescribed normal-dose anabolic steroids may have the following side effects:
- Acne formation .
- Edema .
- Difficulty urinating .
- Growth of male breasts known as gynecomastia .
- Increased red cell count .
- Low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol and high levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol .
- Hair growth or loss .
- Low sperm count and infertility .
- Changes in libido .
During this period, people should be monitored frequently and periodic blood tests should be performed to monitor undesirable effects. The use of non-medical steroids may be from 10 to 100 times the amount used for medical purposes.
- Cardiovascular problems ;
- Sudden cardiac death and myocardial infarction ;
- Liver problems including tumors and other types of damage ;
- Tendon rupture due to collagen degeneration .
- Osteoporosis and bone loss because steroid use affects calcium and vitamin D metabolism .
Steroid use can cause problems such as stunted growth, especially in adolescents. It causes the testicles to shrink, infertility and breast growth in male adults. In women, changes in the menstrual cycle, thickening of the voice, increase in facial and body hair, shrinking breasts and sexual urine may occur. Some of these changes may persist even after steroid use has ceased.
- Liver damage .
- Feelings of aggression .
- Mood and anxiety disorders .